Second Semester


NTI PgDE Courses for 2nd Semester Written Exam are:

PDE 713, PDE 714, (one option from ENG, ITS, MTH, or SOS in PDE 715), PDE 716, PDE 717, PDE 720 and PDE 721

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CoursesPast Q & A
Introduction to Educational Management and PlanningPDE 713
Guidance and Counseling IIPDE 714
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English Language
PDE 715 (ENG)
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Integrated Science
PDE 715 (ITS)
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PDE 715 (MTH)
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Social Studies
PDE 715 (SOS)
Educational Supervision and School InspectionPDE 716
Introduction to Educational TechnologyPDE 717
WhatsApp Us: +234 909 650 5940PDE 719 – Project Work
Comparative EducationPDE 720
Adult and Non-Formal EducationPDE 721
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NTI PgDE Past Questions & Answers for Second Semester

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PDE 713 Answers

  1. It shows the aesthetic nature of the school.
  2. It is the environment where the curriculum is implemented.
  3. It protects the physical well-being of the people associated with the school. Watch Video
  1. Give educational planners a limited guidance. This is because it hasn’t said anything about primary education yet primary education is the bedrock of any education.
  2. Manpower requirements approach ignores the principles of cost-benefit techniques. That is, it does not compare the cost of the manpower to be produced and the benefits to be divided from such a manpower.
  3. The manpower requirements approach ignores social demands for education. That is, it does not consider the aggregate popular demand for education. Rather, it merely considers the shortage of manpower which needed to be provided.
  4. This approach is more relevant in the higher levels of education, since it tends to neglect primary school level. Watch Video

PDE 714 Answers

A group is any collection of people who are brought into a social relationship with one another.

Group dynamics refers to all that it takes to form a group. The life of every living being consists of group life, e.g. life in the family to the school, school to secondary, to university, to work station, etc. This refers to group changes made in the life of individual as he/she joins the group. Watch Video

  1. To help teachers understand basic guidance and counseling principles and techniques.
  2. To assists teachers in improving educational objectives and programmes.
  3. To enable teachers have cordial relationship with students.
  4. It provides a platform that helps the students solve their challenges/problems. Watch Video

PDE 715 Answers

  1. Promote perception
  2. Promote understanding
  3. Promote transfer of learning.
  4. Provide reinforcement or knowledge of result.
  5. Help retention. Watch Video

Lesson plan is a preparation well ahead of time so that the teacher may be adequately informed on the possible problems that may arise and to source for necessary teaching materials before the lessons are taught.

Lesson plan is a planned amount of subject matter and learning experiences which the teacher communicates to the learners showing details of how the instruction will take place within a lesson period. It has two kinds, namely: unit plan and daily plan. Watch Video

PDE 716 Answers

Classroom observation: Of all the various aspects of the activities of a school that comes within an inspector’s purview, none calls for greater caution and tact than classroom observation. The following are the components of learning on which an inspector should focus while assessing the effectiveness of the way a subject is taught in a school:

  1. The teacher’s mastery of the subject
  2. Mode of presentation
  3. Ability of the teacher to stimulate and retain learners’ interest
  4. Class participation
  5. Use of teaching aids (where applicable). Watch Video
  1. Administrative inspection: This era covers 18th – 19th and early part of the 20th century. The focus of inspection was on the personality of the teacher, the effectiveness of classroom management and maintenance of the school plant.
  2. Scientific Supervision (1910 – 1930): This approach impinged on the school system and inspection was autocratic and “snoopervisory”. There was no consideration for teacher. Their motivation as well as their welfare was neglected. Teacher has no contribution whatever into supervision and curriculum development.
  3. Human Relation Supervision or Democratic Supervision as (1930 – 1950): This approach to supervision was ushered in by the workers’ opposition to the principle and practice of scientific management. In the school systems, teachers were well recognized and were given cooperation and assistance as required. This era introduced such ideas as group dynamics, policy making by consultation, diffusion of authority, vertical and horizontal communication and delegation into educational supervision.
  4. Neo-Scientific Supervision Era (1960 – 1970): The major criticism of the human relation era was that it was too soft on the personnel at the detriment of the school goals and objectives. The focus was on the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization. Various forms of supervisory approaches came into play such as Management by Objectives, MBO; Performance Objectives; Systems Analysis; Cost-Benefit analysis etc. All affected the mode of inspection during this era. Accountability was the watchword here.
  1. Human Resources Supervision Era (1970s to Date): The motivation of teachers towards enhanced productivity is the concern of this era. All efforts to improve teachers’ welfare and job satisfaction are seen as means of improving their performance in the school. A number of capacity building initiatives are being taken and school-based professional support is being encouraged. Watch Video

PDE 717 Answers

Multimedia simply means a combination of media for a given instructional purpose. It is often necessary to combine two or more media for instruction.

Sound-slide combination: It combines two components of sound and visuals either in the same machine or tape recorder. May be used separately from the slide or film strip project.

8mm film-audio cassette is accompanied with an audio-cassette. In it, sound and pictures are separated into two individual’s packages.

Multi-media (learning) is a collection of learning / learning materials involving more than one type of medium and organized around a single topic, e.g. films trip audio-tape, still-pictures, video, and images. Watch Video

It started with Visual Instruction which emphasised the use of visual material to make more concrete the abstract ideas being taught; classified the types of visual aids and emphasised the need to integrate visual materials with instruction.

From Visual Instruction to Audio Instruction – had impetus from the coming of sound recording motion pictures. Both visual and audio visual instruction movements emphasised “things, sense and correctness”.

From Audio Visual Inspection to Communication – emphasis began to shift from devices (equipment) and materials to the process of communicating information from source (teacher) to the receiver (learner)

From Audio Visual Instruction to Early System Concepts – the systems concept of educational technology revolutionised the field with its emphasis on the identification and integration of components of a system with a view to increasing system efficiency.

The communication and system concepts above were the two dominant features and characteristics in the field in the early 1960s.

Audio Visual Communication – Synthesising communications and early system concepts:  The planning, production, selection, management and utilisation of the components of the entire instructional system were now emphasized. Watch Video

PDE 720 Answers

Aims of comparative education. Objectives of comparative education

  1. To adduce relevant evidence from comparable situations in other cultures and to measure the evidence against the phenomena being studied in the area under review.
  2. To contribute to the very important basic concepts of a culture.
  3. To provide ghostly direction-finder or pointer for some of the specialised academic disciplines.
  4. To serve as a three-fold role of providing study in similarities, study in differences and interpretative studies in education systems Watch Video
  1. The study enables teacher to have a philosophical foresight to identify educational problems and proffer solutions to them.
  2. The study serves as an eye opener to teachers.
  3. The study helps to improve teacher education system.
  4. The study helps to assess the educational plan of a nation and makes it open for amendment and further proposal for education system in any nation.
  5. The study helps to initiate an education system that will accelerate the much needed development to match with the growth in technology.
  6. The study provides the weaker nations a base to stand and start doing something to improve their struggling educational systems.

PDE 721 Answers

  1. Division of labour: Bureaucratic organizations are based on division of labour. Functionaries are assigned particular functions to perform in the organization.
  2. Hierarchy: Bureaucratic set-ups are organized as chains of command. This means that officers are arranged in such a way that authority, orders and command flow from superiors to subordinates.
  3. Impersonal relations: It implies that actions taken in a bureaucratic organization are taken on law and not on any personal considerations.
  4. Records: Each activity is based on written rules and records. Administrative acts and decisions are formulated and recorded in writing.
  5. Upward mobility: Those people who are able to demonstrate adequate technical training are qualified to be promoted to the next higher office of administrative hierarchy. Watch Video
  1. Non-provision and late delivery of course materials: Materials are not supplied promptly to learners. These course materials are the central learning implements in distance education. When they are not produced or not sent at the appropriate time, students resort to engaging local tutors and lectures. Also, the annual face-to-face meeting then forms the participants teaching medium. In such case, the distance learning system degenerates to face-to-face sandwich programme.
  2. Non-use of multimedia: For meaningful distance teaching of vocational and science subjects, the use of television is important. At the moment, few (if any) of the public distance institutions make use of television.
  3. Ill-equipped study centres: Study centres are venues where distant learners ought to meet rather regularly with other learners and local tutors. They should be stocked with relevant reference books and teaching aids. Hardly any distance learning system in the country operates adequately equipped study centres and yet these are important activity centres.
  4. Absence of student’s counseling system: A number of cognitive distance and social factors militates against the individual distant student. Some of these problems centre on student isolation, lack of encouragement at place of work, lack of peace and quiet atmosphere at home and inability to master distance learning techniques. It leads to high drop-out rate in distance learning. Watch Video
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