# Solar Photovoltaic Solutions

## Solar Photovoltaic Solutions

Solar photovoltaic solutions often begin from an adequate estimate of the energy generation capacity from the solar resources in a given site. Thus, the solar resource available in a geographical location is a deciding factor for estimating the energy generation capacity of a solar module.

## Estimating Energy Generation Capacity From Solar Radiation Resources:

Usually, the lowest month kWh/m2/day value is the starting point. Sometimes, the average number of sun hours per day is taken to be equal to kWh/m2/day as shown in the graphs below. It is typically between about 5 and 6 kWh/m2/day). That is equivalent to 5 – 6 hours of 1000 W/m2 sunlight every day for many geographical locations. However, the daily sun hours must be adjusted for other factors to obtain the actual energy generation capacity.

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Some of these factors are presented as follows. The correction factors include:

1. 15% for temperature above 25 ˚C (for each degree over 25 ˚C the maximum power of the solar module is reduced by the value of the temperature coefficient). That value is in the range of –0.44% to –0.50% for crystalline silicon with best value of –0.38% for mono-crystalline silicon and –0.34% for amorphouse silicon while it is –0.25% for Cadmium Telluride thin films.
2. 5% for losses due to sunlight not striking the solar module straight on (caused by glass having increasing reflectance at lower angles of incidence).
3. 10% for losses due to not receiving energy at the maximum power point, MPP (not present if there is a MPPT controller).
4. 5% allowance for dirt, dusts or droplets from birds.
5. 10% allowance for the solar module being below specification and for ageing.

The total correction factor = 0.85 X 0.95 X 0.90 X 0.95 X 0.90 = 0.62

The actual energy generation capacity =  0.62 X Wp rating. That is, for every Wp capacity in the solar module, we can expect to get an average of 0.62 X Wp Wh/day during the lowest solar month (or design month).

## Take a Quiz on Solar Photovoltaic Solutions

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1. Germany is also a key supplier of solar power technology, but it does not produce many PV panels. In what sort of technology does it specialize? ASME

2. Sunlight passing through the earth’s atmosphere is attenuated, or reduced, by about 30% by the time it reaches the earth’s surface due to such effects except P7

3. Of all new generating capacity added to the U.S. electrical grid in 2015, what percentage was solar?

4. Researchers at Bell Labs made improvements in photovoltaics in the mid-1950s. In 1962, these silicon cells had their first high-profile application. What was it? ASME

5. — is a battery technology that has a combination of the ability to be deep cycled, overcharged and left for long periods fully discharged, in conjunction with its longer life expectancy, robustness, greater reliability and freedom from requiring ongoing maintenance. P219

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